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EMS (Equine Metabolic Syndrome) is similar to Type 2 Diabetes in humans. Like humans with diabetes, horses with Equine Metabolic Syndrome have difficulty processing sugars in their body, which can lead to many health problems. Although similar to a disorder known as “Cushing’s Disease” EMS is distinguished by the fact that all the horse’s internal hormonal glands are normal. In “Cushing’s Disease” there is generally a slow growing abnormality on the horse’s pituitary gland, one of the glands that controls hormone secretion.

Most mammals are susceptible to at least one type of herpes virus. Fortunately, the herpes virus is very species-specific, meaning that humans do not catch equine herpes virus, and vise versa. There are five known subtypes in horses, but Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 are the two severest forms of the virus. EHV-3 is another type of major herpes virus, although it is normally associated with coital exanthema, a venereal disease that can be transmitted to horses.

Diarrhea is not in itself a disease, but instead a symptom of many diseases, recognized when a horse's feces change in consistency from the normal firm, well-formed fecal balls to runny, liquid feces. There are certain instances in which a bit of diarrhea is normal, such as a sudden change of environment or feed. However, severe diarrhea is not normal and requires veterinary assistance.